The dirs built-in prints the contents of the directory stack.


  • dirs [-cv] [index..]


The directory stack is a feature that records history of working directories. You can use the pushd built-in to save a working directory in the directory stack, the popd built-in to recall the saved working directory, and the dirs built-in to see the stack contents. Those built-ins use the DIRSTACK array and the PWD variable to save the stack contents. Modifying the array means modifying the stack contents.

Directory stack entries are indexed by signed integers. The entry of index +0 is the current working directory, +1 is the last saved directory, +2 is the second last, and so on. Negative indices are in the reverse order: the entry of index -0 is the first saved directory, -1 is the second, and -n is the current working directory if the stack has n entries,

When executed without the -c (--clear) option, the dirs built-in prints the current contents of the directory stack to the standard output. With the -c (--clear) option, the built-in clears the directory stack.



Clear the directory stack contents except for the current working directory, which has index +0.


Print indices when printing stack contents.



The index of a stack entry to be printed.

You can specify more than one index. If you do not specify any index, all the entries are printed.

Exit status

The exit status of the dirs built-in is zero unless there is any error.


The dirs built-in is a semi-special built-in. In the POSIX standard, it is defined as a command with unspecified behavior.